Welcome to Hot Springs Radiology Services, LTD.

This eleven-member group consists of board certified radiologists with subspecialty training in neuroradiology, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, CT, ultrasound, MRI, mammography, and musculoskeletal imaging.

Diagnostic Radiology

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Diagnostic radiology is concerned with the use of various imaging modalities to aid in the diagnosis of disease. Diagnostic radiology can be further divided into multiple sub-specialty areas. Interventional radiology, one of these sub-specialty areas, uses the imaging modalities of diagnostic radiology to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures.


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Fluoroscopy and angiography are special applications of X-ray imaging, in which a fluorescent screen and image intensifier tube is connected to a closed-circuit television system. This allows real-time imaging of structures in motion or augmented with a radiocontrast agent. Radiocontrast agents are administered, often swallowed or injected into the body of the patient, to delineate anatomy and functioning of the blood vessels, the genitourinary system or the gastrointestinal tract. Two radiocontrasts are presently in use. Barium (as BaSO4) may be given orally or rectally for evaluation of the GI tract. Iodine, in multiple proprietary forms, may be given by oral, rectal, intraarterial or intravenous routes. These radiocontrast agents strongly absorb or scatter X-ray radiation, and in conjunction with the real-time imaging allows demonstration of dynamic processes, such as peristalsis in the digestive tract or blood flow in arteries and veins. Iodine contrast may also be concentrated in abnormal areas more or less than in normal tissues and make abnormalities (tumors, cysts, inflammation) more conspicuous. Additionally, in specific circumstances air can be used as a contrast agent for the gastrointestinal system and carbon dioxide can be used as a contrast agent in the venous system; in these cases, the contrast agent attenuates the X-ray radiation less than the surrounding tissues.

Interventional Radiology

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Interventional radiology (abbreviated IR or sometimes VIR for vascular and interventional radiology) is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes (e.g., angiogram), while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., angioplasty).

The basic concept behind interventional radiology is to diagnose or treat pathology, with the most minimally invasive technique possible. Interventional radiologists diagnose and treat several disorders including peripheral vascular disease, renal artery stenosis, inferior vena cava filter placement, gastrostomy tube placements, biliary stents and hepatic interventions. Images are used for guidance and the primary instruments used during the procedure are needles and tiny tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the interventional radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas containing disease. By minimizing the physical trauma to the patient, peripheral interventions can reduce infection rates and recovery time as well as shorten hospital stays. To be a trained interventionalist in the United States, an individual completes a five year residency in Radiology and a two year fellowship in Interventional Radiology.

Computed Tomography (CT)

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CT imaging uses X-rays in conjunction with computing algorithms to image the body. In CT, an X-ray generating tube opposite an X-ray detector (or detectors) in a ring shaped apparatus rotate around a patient producing a computer generated cross-sectional image (tomogram). CT is acquired in the axial plane, while coronal and sagittal images can be rendered by computer reconstruction. Radiocontrast agents are often used with CT for enhanced delineation of anatomy. Although radiographs provide higher spatial resolution, CT can detect more subtle variations in attenuation of X-rays. CT exposes the patient to more ionizing radiation than a radiograph.

Spiral Multi-detector CT uses 8, 16, 64 or more detectors during continuous motion of the patient through the radiation beam to obtain much finer detail images in a shorter exam time. With rapid administration of IV contrast during the CT scan these fine detail images can be reconstructed into 3D images of carotid, cerebral, coronary or other arteries. CT scanning has become the test of choice in diagnosing some urgent and emergent conditions such as cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism (clots in the arteries of the lungs), aortic dissection (tearing of the aortic wall), appendicitis, diverticulitis, and obstructing kidney stones. Continuing improvements in CT technology including faster scanning times and improved resolution have dramatically increased the accuracy and usefulness of CT scanning which may partially account for increased use in medical diagnosis.


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Medical ultrasonography uses ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to visualize soft tissue structures in the body in real time. No ionizing radiation is involved, but the quality of the images obtained using ultrasound is highly dependent on the skill of the person (ultrasonographer) performing the exam and patient body habitus. Larger patients may have a decrease in image quality due to sound wave absorption in the subcutaneous fat layer. This results in less sound wave penetrating to organs and reflecting back to transducer ultimately causing a poorer quality image. Ultrasound is also limited by its inability to image through air (lungs, bowel loops) or bone. The use of ultrasound in medical imaging has developed mostly within the last 30 years. The first ultrasound images were static and two dimensional (2D), but with modern-day ultrasonography 3D reconstructions can be observed in real-time; effectively becoming 4D.

Because ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, unlike radiography, CT scans, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques, it is generally considered safer. For this reason, this modality plays a vital role in obstetrical imaging. Fetal anatomic development can be thoroughly evaluated allowing early diagnosis of many fetal anomalies. Growth can be assessed over time, important in patients with chronic disease or gestation-induced disease, and in multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.). Color-Flow Doppler Ultrasound measures the severity of peripheral vascular disease and is used by Cardiology for dynamic evaluation of the heart, heart valves and major vessels. Stenosis of the carotid arteries can presage cerebral infarcts (strokes). DVT in the legs can be found via ultrasound before it dislodges and travels to the lungs (pulmonary embolism), which can be fatal if left untreated. Ultrasound is useful for image-guided interventions like biopsies and drainages such as thoracentesis). Small portable ultrasound devices now replace peritoneal lavage in the triage of trauma victims by directly assessing for the presence of hemorrhage in the peritoneum and the integrity of the major viscera including the liver, spleen and kidneys. Extensive hemoperitoneum (bleeding inside the body cavity) or injury to the major organs may require emergent surgical exploration and repair.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

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MRI uses strong magnetic fields to align atomic nuclei (usually hydrogen protons) within body tissues, then uses a radio signal to disturb the axis of rotation of these nuclei and observes the radio frequency signal generated as the nuclei return to their baseline states. The radio signals are collected by small antennae, called coils, placed near the area of interest. An advantage of MRI is its ability to produce images in axial, coronal, sagittal and multiple oblique planes with equal ease. MRI scans give the best soft tissue contrast of all the imaging modalities. With advances in scanning speed and spatial resolution, and improvements in computer 3D algorithms and hardware, MRI has become an important tool in musculoskeletal radiology and neuroradiology.

One disadvantage is that the patient has to hold still for long periods of time in a noisy, cramped space while the imaging is performed. Claustrophobia severe enough to terminate the MRI exam is reported in up to 5% of patients. Recent improvements in magnet design including stronger magnetic fields (3 teslas), shortening exam times, wider, shorter magnet bores and more open magnet designs, have brought some relief for claustrophobic patients. However, in magnets of equal field strength there is often a trade-off between image quality and open design. MRI has great benefit in imaging the brain, spine, and musculoskeletal system. The modality is currently contraindicated for patients with pacemakers, cochlear implants, some indwelling medication pumps, certain types of cerebral aneurysm clips, metal fragments in the eyes and some metallic hardware due to the powerful magnetic fields and strong fluctuating radio signals the body is exposed to. Areas of potential advancement include functional imaging, cardiovascular MRI, as well as MR image guided therapy.

Nuclear Medicine

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Nuclear medicine imaging involves the administration into the patient of radiopharmaceuticals consisting of substances with affinity for certain body tissues labeled with radioactive tracer. The most commonly used tracers are Technetium-99m, Iodine-123, Iodine-131, Gallium-67, Indium-111, Thallium-201 and 18F-FDG. The heart, lungs, thyroid, liver, gallbladder, and bones are commonly evaluated for particular conditions using these techniques. While anatomical detail is limited in these studies, nuclear medicine is useful in displaying physiological function. The excretory function of the kidneys, iodine concentrating ability of the thyroid, blood flow to heart muscle, etc. can be measured. The principal imaging device is the gamma camera which detects the radiation emitted by the tracer in the body and displays it as an image. With computer processing, the information can be displayed as axial, coronal and sagittal images (SPECT images, single-photon emission computed tomography). In the most modern devices Nuclear Medicine images can be fused with a CT scan taken quasi-simultaneously so that the physiological information can be overlaid or co-registered with the anatomical structures to improve diagnostic accuracy.

Positron emission tomography (PET), scanning is a nuclear medicine procedure that deals with positrons. The positrons annihilate to produce two opposite traveling gamma rays to be detected coincidentally, thus improving resolution. In PET scanning, a radioactive, biologically active substance, most often Fludeoxyglucose (18F), is injected into a patient and the radiation emitted by the patient is detected to produce multi-planar images of the body. Metabolically more active tissues, such as cancer, concentrate the active substance more than normal tissues. PET images can be combined (or "fused") with an anatomic imaging study (currently generally CT images), to more accurately localize PET findings and thereby improve diagnostic accuracy.

The fusion technology has gone further to combine PET and MRI similar to PET and CT. PET/MRI fusion, largely practiced in academic and research settings, could potentially play a crucial role in fine detail of brain imaging, breast cancer screening and small joint imaging of foot. The technology recently blossomed following passing a technical hurdle of altered positron movement in strong magnetic field thus affecting the resolution of PET images and attenuation correction.